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"We don't take women": Ekaterina Popova on discrimination against women in the labor market
"We don't take women": Ekaterina Popova on discrimination against women in the labor market

The third article of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation states that "no one can be restricted in labor rights and freedoms or receive any benefits depending on gender." Our columnist Yekaterina Popova understands whether this is so and whether it is really as easy for women to look for work and move up the career ladder in our country as it is for men.

"We don't take women": Ekaterina Popova on discrimination against women in the labor market

Now it is often said that feminism has outlived its usefulness: they say, it was needed when women had no rights, but the suffragists of the "first wave" achieved for their granddaughters the opportunity to vote, and access to education, and official employment. Now all the roads are open for women, and it is time to send feminists with all respect to the dustbin of history - to the Decembrists and Bolsheviks.

Formally, everything looks exactly like this: equality of rights and freedoms is enshrined in the key documents of our country - this is stated both in the Constitution and in the Labor Code. However, in reality, women over and over again encounter ravines, which are not mentioned in any official paper. Any of us have dealt with some form of discrimination in the labor market: when I asked a friend to share my stories, comments poured in not only dozens - hundreds.

You will go on maternity leave

A young woman is perhaps the least attractive candidate for a job for employers. Employers are afraid of a decree almost more than tax audits: you take a twenty-five-year-old to work, teach her everything, and she, meanly, gets pregnant, then look for a replacement for her, and then wait until she returns from the decree and will return at all. And after the vacation, which one of her is a worker: she starts to take time off to parent meetings, then to take sick leave to take care of the child. It is completely normal at an interview to ask a woman whether she has been married for a long time and what her plans for childbearing are, and tell the HR officer that such conversations are the very discrimination that is prohibited at the very beginning of the Labor Code, he will be sincerely surprised. But what is there, very often this reason for refusal - a potential decree - is directly voiced to the woman herself.

Your husband feeds you

In early March, Deputy Prime Minister Olga Golodets announced the statistics regarding the difference between the salaries of men and women: it was 30%. The gap is slowly but surely growing: in 2017 it was 29%, in 2013 - 25%. There are many reasons for this. There are objective ones: women take on the lion's share of household chores and care for children and the elderly and are therefore willing to be content with lower wages (if only the “official” job would leave enough time for the “second shift”), and employers are willing to take advantage of this. There are subjective ones: “traditional” values ​​are strong in Russia, and men are often paid more simply because “the husband is to feed the family”.



What a boss is a woman

According to experts, women are promoted twice as slowly as men. When conducting surveys, more than half of the respondents say that they have faced the stereotype that women cannot be leaders, because they are not inherent in leadership. According to research, the best candidate for promotion is a married man with children, the worst is a married mother. The laws prohibit discrimination, but in fact the entire labor market is simply saturated with it. Even in areas that are 90% women (for example, in school education), men will still be at the top. Suffragettes really achieved that the "weaker sex" was allowed to reach the career ladder, but the fight for each step for women is still unequal.This is typical not only for Russia: there is evidence that men are promoted more readily than women in the UN reports, which monitors the situation around the world.

This is not a woman's business

In Russia, there is a list of 456 professions prohibited for women. It is believed that this official taboo protects expectant mothers from working conditions hazardous to their health, but in fact, very many of the specialties have analogues available to women, which differ only in one thing - lower wages. For example, a grader's cabin is not much different from a tram's cabin - there are the same lever efforts, noise level, vibration, etc.

In addition to legalized prohibitions, there are also unspoken traditions that attribute dozens of activities to "male" ones. Formally, they are available to women, but it turns out that they don’t want to see girls there: few believe that the “women” will cope. And if suddenly a woman turns out to be a “male” position, then every time, in addition to the work itself, she will have to spend time proving her competence.

Whenever a woman is faced with a similar problem and declares it, she is told that it is very easy to overcome difficulties. If they don't want to take to one company, go to another for an interview. They pay little - quit and find a place with a large salary. Don't get promoted - work harder. But the whole point is that this is also part of discrimination. Women do not have to look for a place where their rights will not be violated - laws on non-discrimination must be respected everywhere. And while equal opportunities exist only on paper, feminism will still come in handy.

Perhaps the Decembrists and the Bolsheviks too.

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